The final character we have to introduce is Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, usually just called Cavour. He was the Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Piedmont Sardinia from to , when he became the first Prime Minister of a united Italy, though he would only hold that position for a mere two and a half months before his untimely death.
Cavour was the man pulling the strings behind the eventual Italian unification - he made the secret deals with France and cooked up the excuses that led to war with Austria. His particular brand of liberal conservatism would dominate the early Italian state. Giuseppe Garibaldi is, by a huge margin, the most famous person in the story of the Italian Unification. But, his fame goes beyond that. Garibaldi was famous on a scale never before seen, as his fame coincided with an explosion in the technology of mass media - the telegraph, lithography, photography, combined with increasing literacy and public interest in foreign affairs.
As we've seen while moving through our story, Austria in the 18th and 19th centuries was heavily involved in Italian affairs, exerting strong control over the northern half of the peninsula and supporting the old order whenever possible. We're starting to approach a pivotal series of events that rocked Europe: the Revolutions of The Italian side of the revolutions can't really be understood without first understanding the Austrian side.
So, in this episode I'll be giving a primer on Austria. To start with, let's be clear: I'm not talking about the modern state of Austria so much as about the Austrian Empire, also known as the Habsburg Empire or Monarchy, which, while centered in Austria, was a multinational empire based more on dynastic than ethnic or cultural ties.
We're going to be looking in particular at the following questions: What was the Austrian Empire, and why was the Austrian Empire? Mazzini organized many revolutions in Italy, but because of his public notoriety was blamed for all of them, even those he had actively opposed. The revolutions all failed - partly due to poor planning, but also partly due to bad luck.
It was hard to tell ahead of time which revolts would peter out almost before they began and which would somehow light the spark of popular resistance. That Mazzini tried again and again was not because he enjoyed making martyrs out of men, but because he believed in the unity of thought and action - if Italian patriotism was indeed favored by God, how could men of good conscience stand by and do nothing? They had to try.
And, by trying, they inspired more people to believe in Italy. But, if he had died here, he would still be famous, as the man who made millions believe in Italy. News Flash - Venetian Secession. In mid-March, , Venetians overwhelmingly voted for secession from Italy in an unofficial, online referendum.
- Table of Contents: Napoleon's legacy :?
- Theory of Function Spaces II (Modern Birkhäuser Classics).
- The History and Sedimentology of Ancient Reef Systems (Topics in Geobiology 17).
Learn more about why this happened and what it means for Italy's future. The stars of the show are about to come on stage. They are larger than life in many ways.
These three men were critical in defining what it means to be Italian. Each of them is so much more important to the story than simply a list of their actions. Their beliefs and values helped to shape a nation. Mazzini, sometimes called the beating heart of Italy, was the oldest of the three, and the first to become important to our story. This episode is the first of two specifically about Mazzini, as I can't fit it all into a single episode. King Victor Emmanuel I had abdicated in and his brother Charles Felix was now king, but they were men cut from the same cloth, so Piedmont still had a decidedly pre-Napoleonic mindset.
There will be a changing of the guard, and by all of these men will be dead and gone, replaced with new rulers who will be some of the key players in the Italian Unification.
We're also going to see another wave of revolutions in that break out in , and which will meet much the same fate as those in and Where classicism had emphasized a cosmopolitan, international perspective, romanticism inspired nationalism and a search for identity. In Italy, though, this was a more complicated task than you might think. The peninsula had been fragmented for over a thousand, people spoke different languages, had different ethnic backgrounds in some cases, and had fought wars against each other not that long before.
The formation of the modern unified Italian state was NOT a foregone conclusion. We cover the revolutions against the Kingdom of Piedmont and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies Episode 16 - The Restoration, is out! In this episode we're going to see what came after Napoleon, and how the victorious British, Prussians, Austrians, and Russians tried to undo the damage that had been done to the Old Order.
Southern Europe, 1800–1900 A.D.
We'll see the old governments restored in Italy. Minisode 1 - What About Sicily? Sardinia and Sicily were never conquered by Napoleon, and so came out of the Napoleonic Wars with a distinctly different attitude from the rest of Italy. We're going to look at Napoleon's legacy in three broad steps. First, what were Napoleon's reforms, economic, political, and social, and what did they accomplish. Second, who benefitted from his rule?
Who was going to miss him when he was gone, and perhaps form the nucleus of an opposition to those who came after him. Finally, what did all of this mean for the idea of Italy? Did the people in Italy feel more or less Italian after Napoleon left than they had before he arrived? For the last time in a while, we're going to be leaving Italy behind for this episode and focusing on events elsewhere in Europe.
Specifically, we're going to cover, in broad strokes, the Napoleonic Wars and the end of Napoleon's empire, as well as the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire.
David Laven (Author of Napoleon's Legacy)
We've talked in some detail about the impact that Napoleon had on Italy. But it's difficult to truly understand Napoleon's legacy in Italy without understanding his legacy in Europe as a whole. Napoleon had a profound impact on Europe, a bigger impact than anyone had had in centuries. This was in part due to the incredible scale and duration of the wars he started, but it was also because of how he tore down and rebuilt centuries-old institutions and sought to remake Europe to suit himself.
We're going to be looking at the Italian army under Napoleon in this episode. The Italian army took part in numerous conflicts, including Napoleon's famous and failed invasion of Russia in , and established a strong military tradition were previously there had been none. We'll be talking about how armies of the time fought, the origins and development of the Italian army, its social impact, and the campaigns in which it fought. Napoleon had used Italy's disunity to his advantage, allowing him to control most of Italy, either directly or indirectly, for a comparatively small cost in men and resources.
However, Napoleon was about to double down on his rise to power, and he'd need to tighten his grip on Italy to help finance his bet. In , Napoleon told a Prussian minister "Italy is my mistress whose favors I want no one to share. First we'll Napoleon replace the Italian Republic, in the northeast of Italy, with the Kingdom of Italy, making himself its new king. Then he'll dissolve the Papal states, which, with the rest of northwest of Italy, will be annexed to France. Finally, he'll put first his brother and then his brother-in-law on the throne of the nominally independent Kingdom of Naples.
Special Announcements - Collage and Interview. Tw quick announcements: 1 Check out the new series I'm hosting, History Podcasters: Collage, where your favorite podcasters give their takes on interesting topics. Check out Audio Lounge, Episode 5. It's , and Italy is fractured, politically, socially, and economically.
This made it easy for Napoleon to invade in the first place, and now he is going to exploit this to keep Italy under his thumb. Adam's back with the War of the 2nd Coalition. The war in Europe spreads as Napoleon invades Egypt. Russia enters the war against France and helps invade Italy. Meanwhile politics back in France are getting increasingly heated as various factions vie for power. Venice 3 - The Road to Hell. In Venice Bonus Episode 2 we explained how the 4th Crusade started. Now we follow it to its tragic conclusion, with the sack of Constantinople by French and Venetian crusaders.
We go over Napoleon's invasion of Italy again, this time focusing on his administrative and political actions. He got started quickly, as in just 2 years he had already upended Northern Italy. We cover Italy in the early 's, the final years of the old order before Napoleon's invasion. This covers some of the same time period as episode 7, but this time we look at things from the Italian perspective. At the end of the episode we answer questions from listeners. Venice 2 - Paved With Good Intentions.
This is the first of two special epiodes on Venice that will cover the 4th Crusade. It's a tragically human tale that begins as an attempt to liberate Jerusalem and ends with the Crusader sack of Constantinople. The French Revolution. Adam makes his triumphant return to the podcast! He discusses the French Revolution, which is what set the ball in motion that would eventually lead to the Unification of Italy! In the last of our prequel episodes, we cover , laying the groundwork for the Italian Unification. Venice 1 - In the Beginning.
This is the first of a series of bonus episodes on the history of Venice. In this episode we start with the founding of Venice by Roman refugees fleeing barbarian invasions and work our way up to the end of the 11th century, just before the 1st crusade. We discuss the Italian Renaissance, the late medieval era in Italy, and the papacy. We discuss the birth of the Italian city states and their governments, as well as cover the overall politics of Italy between and In this episode Benjamin discusses the meaning of nations and nationalism, geography of Italy, and the importance of names.
In , most of present-day Italy is united as the Cisalpine Republic under French rule, while the Iberian Peninsula, also under the yoke of Napoleon, is torn by war with its occupying forces. Various movements in the arts—including revivalist styles that celebrate the Italian artistic legacy and, later, schools of realism—reflect an interest in national identity. The Iberian Peninsula remains a seat of political unrest throughout the period. The British also become involved; their plan to weaken the monolithic empire results in the independence of Greece and greater rights for Bulgaria and Serbia, though the latter remain under Ottoman rule.
The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Related Napoleons Legacy: Problems of Government in Restoration Europe
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