In the east, only the Tyrolese rebels led by Andreas Hofer continued to fight the French-Bavarian army until finally defeated in November In the west the Peninsular War continued. The British and Portuguese remained restricted to the area around Lisbon behind their impregnable lines of Torres Vedras but besieged Cadiz.
In , the French Empire reached its greatest extent. Napoleon married Marie-Louise , an Austrian Archduchess, with the aim of ensuring a more stable alliance with Austria and of providing the Emperor with an heir something his first wife, Josephine, had failed to do. Territories allied with the French included:. The War of coincided with the War of the Sixth Coalition.
Historians in the United States and Canada see it as a war in its own right, while Europeans often see it as a minor theatre of the Napoleonic Wars. The United States declared war on Britain because of British interference with American merchant ships and forced enlistment into the British Royal Navy. France had interfered as well, and the US considered declaring war on France.
The war ended in a military stalemate, and there were no boundary changes at the Treaty of Ghent , which took effect in early when Napoleon was on Elba. In Spanish America many local elites formed juntas and set up mechanisms to rule in the name of Ferdinand VII, whom they considered the legitimate Spanish monarch. The outbreak of the Spanish American wars of independence in most of the empire was a result of Napoleon's destabilizing actions in Spain and led to the rise of strongmen in the wake of these wars.
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In contrast, the Portuguese royal family escaped to Brazil and established the court there, resulting in political stability for Portuguese America. With the defeat of Napoleon and the return of the Braganza monarchy to Portugal, the heir remained in Brazil and declared Brazilian independence, achieving it peacefully with the territory intact. The Haitian Revolution began in , just before the French Revolutionary Wars , and continued until France's defeat resulted in the independence of Saint-Domingue and led Napoleon to sell the territory making up the Louisiana Purchase to the United States.
British men-of-war supported the Swedish fleet during the Finnish War and won victories over the Russians in the Gulf of Finland in July and August The success of the Russian army on land, however, forced Sweden to sign peace treaties with Russia in and with France in , and to join the blockade against Britain. But Franco-Russian relations became progressively worse after , and the Russian war with Britain effectively ended.
Each wanted a semi-independent Poland he could control. The French forces crossed the Niemen River on 24 June The Poles supplied almost , men for the invasion force, but against their expectations, Napoleon avoided any concessions to Poland, having in mind further negotiations with Russia. This prevented the French march on the Russian capital, Saint Petersburg ; the fate of the invasion was decided in Moscow, where Napoleon led his forces in person. The main Russian army retreated for almost three months.
Finally, the two armies engaged in the Battle of Borodino on 7 September,  in the vicinity of Moscow. The battle was the largest and bloodiest single-day action of the Napoleonic Wars, involving more than , men and resulting in at least 70, casualties. It was indecisive; the French captured the main positions on the battlefield, but failed to destroy the Russian army. Logistical difficulties meant that French casualties could not be replaced, unlike Russian ones.
Napoleon entered Moscow on 14 September, after the Russian Army had retreated yet again. In October, with no sign of clear victory in sight, Napoleon began the disastrous Great Retreat from Moscow. At the Battle of Maloyaroslavets the French tried to reach Kaluga , where they could find food and forage supplies. The replenished Russian Army blocked the road, and Napoleon was forced to retreat the same way he had come to Moscow, through the heavily ravaged areas along the Smolensk road. When the remnants of the Napoleon's army crossed the Berezina River in November, only 27, fit soldiers survived, with , men dead or missing and , captured.
The campaign effectively ended on 14 December , when the last enemy troops left Russia. The Russians had lost around , men, but with their shorter supply lines, they soon replenished their armies. Seeing an opportunity in Napoleon's historic defeat, Prussia, Sweden, Austria, and several German states re-entered the war. Both battles involved forces of over ,, making them some of the largest conflicts of the wars so far. Metternich in November offered Napoleon the Frankfurt proposals. They would allow Napoleon to remain Emperor but France would be reduced to its "natural frontiers" and lose control of most of Italy and Germany and the Netherlands.
Napoleon still expected to win the wars, and rejected the terms. By , as the Allies were closing in on Paris, Napoleon did agree to the Frankfurt proposals, but it was too late and he rejected the new harsher terms proposed by the Allies. As the French regrouped, the Anglo—Portuguese entered Madrid and advanced towards Burgos, before retreating all the way to Portugal when renewed French concentrations threatened to trap them. As a consequence of the Salamanca campaign, the French were forced to end their long siege of Cadiz and to permanently evacuate the provinces of Andalusia and Asturias.
In a strategic move, Wellesley planned to move his supply base from Lisbon to Santander. The Anglo—Portuguese forces swept northwards in late May and seized Burgos. The French had to retreat out of the Iberian peninsula, over the Pyrenees. The belligerents declared an armistice from 4 June continuing until 13 August during which time both sides attempted to recover from the loss of approximately a quarter of a million men in the preceding two months. During this time coalition negotiations finally brought Austria out in open opposition to France.
Two principal Austrian armies took the field, adding , men to the coalition armies in Germany. The Allies now had around , front-line soldiers in the German theatre, with a strategic reserve of , formed to support the front-line operations. Napoleon succeeded in bringing the imperial forces in the region to around ,—although only , came under his direct command, with another , under Nicolas Charles Oudinot and 30, under Davout.
The remainder of imperial forces came mostly from the Confederation of the Rhine, especially Saxony and Bavaria. In Spain, another , to , French troops steadily retreated before Anglo—Portuguese forces numbering around , Thus around , Frenchmen in all theatres faced around 1,, coalition soldiers including the strategic reserve under formation in Germany. The gross figures may mislead slightly, as most of the German troops fighting on the side of the French fought at best unreliably and stood on the verge of defecting to the Allies. One can reasonably say that Napoleon could count on no more than , men in Germany—which left him outnumbered about four to one.
Following the end of the armistice, Napoleon seemed to have regained the initiative at Dresden August , where he once again defeated a numerically superior coalition army and inflicted enormous casualties, while sustaining relatively few. The failures of his marshals and a slow resumption of the offensive on his part cost him any advantage that this victory might have secured.
At the Battle of Leipzig in Saxony 16—19 October , also called the "Battle of the Nations", , French fought more than , Allies, and the defeated French had to retreat into France. After the French withdrawal from Germany, Napoleon's remaining ally, Denmark-Norway , became isolated and fell to the coalition.
Napoleon then fought a series of battles in France, including the Battle of Arcis-sur-Aube , but the overwhelming numbers of the Allies steadily forced him back. The Allies entered Paris on 30 March During this time Napoleon fought his Six Days' Campaign , in which he won multiple battles against the enemy forces advancing towards Paris. During this entire campaign he never managed to field more than 70, men against more than half a million coalition soldiers.
At the Treaty of Chaumont 9 March , the Allies agreed to preserve the coalition until Napoleon's total defeat. Napoleon determined to fight on, even now, incapable of fathoming his fall from power. During the campaign he had issued a decree for , fresh conscripts, but only a fraction of these materialised, and Napoleon's schemes for victory eventually gave way to the reality of his hopeless situation. Napoleon abdicated on 6 April. Occasional military actions continued in Italy, Spain, and Holland in early They signed the Treaty of Fontainebleau 11 April and initiated the Congress of Vienna to redraw the map of Europe.
The Allies rapidly gathered their armies to meet him again. Napoleon raised , men, whom he distributed among several armies. To add to the 90,strong standing army, he recalled well over a quarter of a million veterans from past campaigns and issued a decree for the eventual draft of around 2. This faced an initial coalition force of about ,—although coalition campaign plans provided for one million front-line soldiers, supported by around , garrison, logistics and other auxiliary personnel. Napoleon took about , men of the Army of the North on a pre-emptive strike against the Allies in Belgium.
His march to the frontier achieved the surprise he had planned, catching the Anglo-Dutch Army in a dispersed arrangement. He forced Prussia to fight at Ligny on 16 June , and the defeated Prussians retreated in disorder. Ney failed to clear the cross-roads and Wellington reinforced the position. But with the Prussian retreat, Wellington too had to retreat. He fell back to a previously reconnoitred position on an escarpment at Mont St Jean, a few miles south of the village of Waterloo. Napoleon took the reserve of the Army of the North, and reunited his forces with those of Ney to pursue Wellington's army, after he ordered Marshal Grouchy to take the right wing of the Army of the North and stop the Prussians re-grouping.
In the first of a series of miscalculations, both Grouchy and Napoleon failed to realise that the Prussian forces were already reorganised and were assembling at the village of Wavre. The French army did nothing to stop a rather leisurely retreat that took place throughout the night and into the early morning by the Prussians. As the 4th, 1st, and 2nd Prussian Corps marched through the town towards Waterloo the 3rd Prussian Corps took up blocking positions across the river, and although Grouchy engaged and defeated the Prussian rearguard under the command of Lt-Gen von Thielmann in the Battle of Wavre 18—19 June it was 12 hours too late.
In the end, 17, Prussians had kept 33, badly needed French reinforcements off the field. Napoleon delayed the start of fighting at the Battle of Waterloo on the morning of 18 June for several hours while he waited for the ground to dry after the previous night's rain. By late afternoon, the French army had not succeeded in driving Wellington's forces from the escarpment on which they stood.
When the Prussians arrived and attacked the French right flank in ever-increasing numbers, Napoleon's strategy of keeping the coalition armies divided had failed and a combined coalition general advance drove his army from the field in confusion. Davout was defeated at the Battle of Issy and negotiations for surrender had begun. On arriving at Paris three days after Waterloo, Napoleon still clung to the hope of a concerted national resistance; but the temper of the legislative chambers , and of the public generally, did not favour his view.
Lacking support Napoleon abdicated again on 22 June , and on 15 July he surrendered to the British squadron at Rochefort. In Italy, Joachim Murat , whom the Allies had allowed to remain King of Naples after Napoleon's initial defeat, once again allied with his brother-in-law, triggering the Neapolitan War March to May Hoping to find support among Italian nationalists fearing the increasing influence of the Habsburgs in Italy, Murat issued the Rimini Proclamation inciting them to war.
The proclamation failed and the Austrians soon crushed Murat at the Battle of Tolentino 2 May to 3 May , forcing him to flee. The Bourbons returned to the throne of Naples on 20 May Murat tried to regain his throne, but after that failed, he was executed by firing squad on 13 October The Napoleonic Wars brought radical changes to Europe, but the reactionary forces returned to power and tried to reverse some of them  by restoring the Bourbon house on the French throne.
Napoleon had succeeded in bringing most of Western Europe under one rule. In most European countries, subjugation in the French Empire brought with it many liberal features of the French Revolution including democracy, due process in courts, abolition of serfdom, reduction of the power of the Catholic Church, and a demand for constitutional limits on monarchs.
The increasing voice of the middle classes with rising commerce and industry meant that restored European monarchs found it difficult to restore pre-revolutionary absolutism and had to retain many of the reforms enacted during Napoleon's rule. Institutional legacies remain to this day in the form of civil law , with clearly defined codes of law —an enduring legacy of the Napoleonic Code.
France's constant warfare with the combined forces of the other major powers of Europe for over two decades finally took its toll. By the end of the Napoleonic Wars, France no longer held the role of the dominant power in Continental Europe, as it had since the times of Louis XIV , as the Congress of Vienna produced a " balance of power " by resizing the main powers so they could balance each other and remain at peace. In this regard, Prussia was restored in its former borders, and also received large chunks of Poland and Saxony. Greatly enlarged, Prussia became a permanent Great Power.
In order to drag Prussia's attention towards the west and France, the Congress also gave the Rhineland and Westphalia to Prussia. These industrial regions transformed agrarian Prussia into an industrial leader in the nineteenth century. After the Napoleonic period, nationalism, a relatively new movement, became increasingly significant. This shaped much of the course of future European history. Its growth spelled the beginning of some states and the end of others, as the map of Europe changed dramatically in the hundred years following the Napoleonic Era.
Rule by fiefdoms and aristocracy was widely replaced by national ideologies based on shared origins and culture. Bonaparte's reign over Europe sowed the seeds for the founding of the nation-states of Germany and Italy by starting the process of consolidating city-states, kingdoms and principalities. At the end of the war Denmark was forced to cede Norway to Sweden mainly as a compensation for the loss of Finland which the other coalition members agreed to, but because Norway had signed its own constitution on 17 May Sweden initiated the Swedish—Norwegian War of The union was peacefully dissolved in The United Kingdom of the Netherlands created as a buffer state against France dissolved rapidly with the independence of Belgium in The Napoleonic wars also played a key role in the independence of the Latin American colonies from Spain and Portugal.
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The conflict weakened the authority and military power of Spain, especially after the Battle of Trafalgar. There were many uprisings in Spanish America, leading to the wars of independence. In Portuguese America , Brazil experienced greater autonomy as it now served as seat of the Portuguese Empire and ascended politically to the status of Kingdom.
These events also contributed to the Portuguese Liberal Revolution in and the Independence of Brazil in The century of relative transatlantic peace, after the Congress of Vienna, enabled the "greatest intercontinental migration in human history"  beginning with "a big spurt of immigration after the release of the dam erected by the Napoleonic Wars. Another concept emerged from the Congress of Vienna — that of a unified Europe. After his defeat, Napoleon deplored the fact that his dream of a free and peaceful "European association" remained unaccomplished.
Such a European association would share the same principles of government, system of measurement, currency and Civil Code. One-and-a-half centuries later, and after two world wars several of these ideals re-emerged in the form of the European Union. Until the time of Napoleon, European states employed relatively small armies, made up of both national soldiers and mercenaries.
These regulars were highly drilled professional soldiers. Both issues combined to limit field forces to approximately 30, men under a single commander. Military innovators in the midth century began to recognise the potential of an entire nation at war: a "nation in arms". The scale of warfare dramatically enlarged during the Revolutionary and subsequent Napoleonic Wars. During Europe's major pre-revolutionary war, the Seven Years' War of —, few armies ever numbered more than , with field forces often numbering less than 30, The French innovations of separate corps allowing a single commander to efficiently command more than the traditional command span of 30, men and living off the land which allowed field armies to deploy more men without requiring an equal increase in supply arrangements such as depots and supply trains allowed the French republic to field much larger armies than their opponents.
Napoleon ensured during the time of the French republic that separate French field armies operated as a single army under his control, often allowing him to substantially outnumber his opponents. The Battle of Marengo, which largely ended the War of the Second Coalition, was fought with fewer than 60, men on both sides. The Battle of Friedland which led to peace with Russia in involved about , men.
After these defeats, the continental powers developed various forms of mass conscription to allow them to face France on even terms, and the size of field armies increased rapidly. The battle of Wagram of involved , men, and , fought at Leipzig in , of whom , were killed or wounded. About a million French soldiers became casualties wounded, invalided or killed , a higher proportion than in the First World War.
The European total may have reached 5,, military deaths, including disease. Before Napoleon's efforts, Lazare Carnot played a large part in the reorganisation of the French army from to —a time which saw previous French misfortunes reversed, with Republican armies advancing on all fronts.
The French army peaked in size in the s with 1. Haphazard bookkeeping, rudimentary medical support and lax recruitment standards ensured that many soldiers either never existed, fell ill or were unable to withstand the physical demands of soldiering. About 2. Britain had , men under arms between and as its army expanded from 40, men in  to a peak of , men in In September , Russia had , enlisted men in its land forces, and between and 2.
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Another , served in the Russian Navy. Out of the , men, the field armies deployed against France numbered less than , There are no consistent statistics for other major combatants. Austria's forces peaked at about , during the War of the Sixth Coalition and had little or no naval component yet never fielded more than , men in field armies. After Britain, Austria proved the most persistent enemy of France; more than a million Austrians served during the long wars.
Its large army was overall quite homogeneous and solid and in operated in Germany , men , Italy and the Balkans 90, men at its peak, about 50, men during most of the campaigning on these fronts. Austria's manpower was becoming quite limited towards the end of the wars, leading its generals to favour cautious and conservative strategies, to limit their losses. Prussia never had more than , men under arms at any time. In —, the core of its army about , men was characterised by competence and determination, but the bulk of its forces consisted of second- and third-line troops, as well as militiamen of variable strength.
Many of these troops performed reasonably well and often displayed considerable bravery but lacked the professionalism of their regular counterparts and were not as well equipped. Others were largely unfit for operations, except sieges. During the campaign, , men were used in the military operations, with , effectively participating in the main German campaign, and about 30, being used to besiege isolated French garrisons. Spain's armies also peaked at around , men, not including more than 50, guerrillas scattered over Spain. Even small nations now had armies rivalling the size of the Great Powers ' forces of past wars but most of these were poor quality forces only suitable for garrison duties.
The size of their combat forces remained modest yet they could still provide a welcome addition to the major powers. As these small nations joined the coalition forces in —, they provided a useful addition to the coalition while depriving Napoleon of much needed manpower. The initial stages of the Industrial Revolution had much to do with larger military forces—it became easy to mass-produce weapons and thus to equip larger forces.
Britain was the largest single manufacturer of armaments in this period. It supplied most of the weapons used by the coalition powers throughout the conflicts. France produced the second-largest total of armaments, equipping its own huge forces as well as those of the Confederation of the Rhine and other allies. Napoleon showed innovative tendencies in his use of mobility to offset numerical disadvantages, as demonstrated in the rout of the Austro-Russian forces in in the Battle of Austerlitz. The French Army redefined the role of artillery, forming independent, mobile units, as opposed to the previous tradition of attaching artillery pieces in support of troops.
The semaphore system had allowed the French War-Minister, Carnot, to communicate with French forces on the frontiers throughout the s. The French continued to use this system throughout the Napoleonic wars. Aerial surveillance was used for the first time when the French used a hot-air balloon to survey coalition positions before the Battle of Fleurus , on 26 June Historians have explored how the Napoleonic wars became total wars. Most historians argue that the escalation in size and scope came from two sources. Second was the emergence of nationalism in France, Germany, Spain, and elsewhere that made these "people's wars" instead of contests between monarchs.
Secondly the military emerged in its own right as a separate sphere of society distinct from the ordinary civilian world. The French Revolution made every civilian a part of the war machine, either as a soldier through universal conscription, or as a vital cog in the home front machinery supporting and supplying the army.
Out of that, says Bell, came "militarism," the belief that the military role was morally superior to the civilian role in times of great national crisis. The fighting army represented the essence of the nation's soul. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Series of early 19th century European wars. Full results. French clients :. Italians: , killed or missing  Spanish: more than , military deaths  — more than , killed  Portuguese: up to , dead or missing  British: 32, killed in action  British: , killed by wounds, disease, accidents and other causes  Russian: , killed in action  Prussian: , killed in action  Austrian: , killed in action —  .
Napoleonic Wars. Anglo-French wars. See also: French Revolutionary Wars. Main article: Third Coalition. Main article: War of the Fourth Coalition.
Main article: Duchy of Warsaw. Main article: War of Main article: Napoleon's invasion of Russia. Main article: Sixth Coalition. Main article: Total war. Main article: Napoleonic Wars in fiction. This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. January France portal War portal. For this reason, "Austrian Empire" is often used instead of "Holy Roman Empire" for brevity's sake when speaking of the Napoleonic Wars, even though the two entities are not synonymous. The alliance broke down in , which led to the French invasion in During that time Russia waged war against Sweden — and the Ottoman Empire — , and nominally against Britain — During the Napoleonic era of to , the Empire participated in two wars against the Allies: against Britain in the Anglo-Turkish War — and against Russia in the Russo-Turkish War — Russia was allied with Napoleon — Polish Legions had already been serving in the French armies beforehand.
Dutch troops fought against Napoleon during the Hundred Days in Following the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt October , various other German states that had previously fought alongside the anti-French allies, including Saxony and Westphalia, also allied with France and joined the Confederation. Saxony changed sides again in during the Battle of Leipzig , causing most other member-states to quickly follow suit and declare war on France. Denmark was compelled to cede Norway to Sweden by the Treaty of Kiel in Following a brief Swedish campaign against Norway , Norway entered a personal union with Sweden.
This section has an unclear citation style. The references used may be made clearer with a different or consistent style of citation and footnoting. March Learn how and when to remove this template message. Sketch of the Napoleon Museum. World Statesmen. Retrieved 18 January Zeittafel der Rechtsgeschichte.
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Edition Europa Verlag. Retrieved 26 June Britannica Online. Retrieved 15 February The Rise of Prussia — Italian unification, — Heinemann Advanced History First ed. Oxford: Heinemann. The Italian Risorgimento: state, society, and national unification First ed. London: Routledge. The diary of a Napoleonic foot soldier. Princeton, N. Yale UP. Napolean: A Life. London: Basic Books. Retrieved 7 November The Cambridge Illustrated History of France 1st ed.
Cambridge University Press. Empire, The rise and demise of the British world order and the lessons for global power. Basic Books. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Warfare and Society in Europe, — Palmer Princeton UP.
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The French Revolution in Global Perspective , pp. Tucker The Encyclopedia of the War Of French History 10 , pp. The Historical Journal 35 , pp. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Retrieved 29 May Retrieved on 12 July The Campaigns of Napoleon. New York: Macmillan.
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Journal of Military History. McConachy rejects the alternative theory that growing reliance on artillery by the French army beginning in was an outgrowth of the declining quality of the French infantry and, later, France's inferiority in cavalry numbers. The History of France 1st ed. Greenwood Press. The influence of sea power on the French Revolution and Empire Vol. II pp. Gray Pen and Sword. What If? Stanford UP. Archived from the original on 1 June Archived from the original on 26 May However he accepted bad advice from the nobility's hard-line conservatives and his wife, Marie Antoinette.
He talked of reform but resisted demands for it. The royal family was forcibly transferred from Versailles to Paris on October 6, Louis ignored advice from advisors and refused to abdicate his responsibilities as king of France, agreeing to a disastrous attempt to escape to the eastern frontier in June He and his family were brought back to Paris, and he lost all credibility as a monarch. Louis had failed to address France's financial problems, instigating the French Revolution that eventually descended upon him.
He made matters worse by often escaping to more pleasurable activities like hunting and locksmithing. Modern historians attribute this behavior to a clinical depression that left him prone to paralyzing indecisiveness. In the fall of , Louis XVI tied his hopes on the dubious prospect of war with Austria in hopes that a military defeat would pave the way for a restoration of his authority. War broke out in April That November, proof of Louis XVI's secret dealings and counter-revolutionary intrigues was discovered, and he and his family were charged with treason.
Louis was soon found guilty by the National Assembly and condemned to death. His wife, Marie Antoinette, met the same fate nine months later, on October 16, Their young son, Louis-Charles, died in prison where living conditions were horrible. At age 15 in May , Louis married the 14 year-old Habsburg Archduchess Maria Antonia Marie Antoinette , his second cousin once removed, in an arranged marriage. The marriage was met with some skepticism by members of the French court, as they remembered a previous alliance with the Habsburgs pulled France into the Seven Years War.
Though initially charmed by her personality, the French people eventually came to loathe Marie Antoinette, accusing her of being promiscuous and sympathetic to French enemies. The first few years of marriage for Louis and Marie were amicable but distant. His shyness kept him distant from her in private, and his fear of her manipulation made him cold to her in public. It is believed the couple did not consummate their marriage for some time, having their first child eight years after their wedding. Historians debate the cause, but most likely, Louis suffered from a physiological dysfunction that took time to rectify.
Louis XVI grew up strong and healthy, though very shy. He was tutored by French noblemen and studied religion, morality and humanities. He excelled in Latin, history, geography and astronomy and achieved fluency in Italian and English. With his good health, Louis enjoyed physical activities including hunting and wrestling. From an early age, he enjoyed locksmithing, which became a lifelong hobby. Louis' parents paid little attention to him, instead focusing on his older brother, the heir apparent, Louis duc de Bourgogne, who died at age nine in Then, on December 20, , his father died of tuberculosis, and Louis Auguste became Dauphin at age His mother never recovered from the family tragedies and also succumbed to tuberculosis on March 13, Louis Auguste was ill prepared for the throne he was soon to inherit.
Following the death of his parents, Louis' tutors provided him with poor interpersonal skills. They exacerbated his shyness by teaching him that austerity was a sign of a strong character in monarchs. As a result, he presented himself as being very indecisive.
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