Jost offers in her The Religious System in Arcadia an invaluable overview of religious life, cults and myths in Arcadia. After stressing the importance of Pan and Zeus Lykaios for all Arcadians, Jost makes a strong case for the pan-Arcadian status of the sanctuary and cult of Despoina at Lykosoura. In his Thelpousian account, Pausanias is referring to the presence of Poseidon Hippios in Arcadia in a very general and exegetic manner VIII, 25, 7 , without suggesting that a cult of Poseidon with such an epiclesis existed in this city.
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Morgan focuses on a crucial aspect of the polyvalent interconnections between religion and the female Lebenswelt : the religious activities tightly connected with the house. After a brief overview on the social status of women in Athens, Morgan analyses the real spaces of female religious action within the house such as the roof in the context of the Adonia or the hearth.
She goes on to intriguingly address the female body both as creator of religious boundaries and medium for trespassing them. Under this topic, the A. Pirenne-Delforgediscusses the multilayer semantic interconnections between Aphrodite and figures of myth such as Pandora, Helena, Hippolytos, and the Danaids in texts like the Hesiodic Theogony or the tragedies.
She demonstrates that the accounts in these texts subtly echo religious thinking related to the cultic activities honouring Aphrodite. In her consideration of the cults of Aphrodite, the A. Pirenne-Delforge convincingly opposes the persistent assumption that there existed sacred prostitution in Greece and especially in Korinth. Cole manages to present an overview of Dionysiac myths and cults with a brief reference to the early presence of this god in the Linear B tablets from Pylos and Khania.
Dionysos is re presented in a sexually ambiguous manner, but he is at the same time surrounded by highly sexed creatures. Clinton offers a summary of his innumerable authoritative publications on the mysteries of the Two Goddesses celebrated at Eleusis. Based primarily on his own interpretation of the iconographical evidence provided by the Lakrateides relief in Eleusis, the Ninnion tablet in Athens, and the so-called regina vasorum in St. Petersburg, Clinton reconstructs a possible outline of the mythological background as well as the ritual and performative aspects of the mysteries.
Dickie discusses in his Magic in Classical and Hellenistic Greece the overwhelmingly negative image of magicians in literary sources. The treatise On the sacred disease is one of the main texts used by the A. In a further step, Dickie demonstrates that the principal activity of magicians was not just the casting of spells: magicians were involved in meteorological magic, in healing and prevention of sicknesses, in different forms of divination, and in performing various kinds of illusionist tricks.
Dickie very briefly deals with the identity of the persons who performed magic and the ways they were treated by the law. Harrison makes a strong case for the consideration of the entire Greek literary production in the study of religion and at the same time he intriguingly points at the various methodological problems connected with the different literary forms.
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While the A. It is worth noticing that the author insightfully argues against several axioms that dominate the study of Greek religion ritual vs. Carpenter offers a useful overview of the interconnections between religion and figurative representations of rituals and gods in various artistic media. Geographically, Carpenter concentrates for obvious reasons on Athens, while the chronological focus lies on the second half of the fifth century BCE. I strongly disagree with the interpretation of Athena Parthenos and the Parthenon as extravagant votive offerings and not as cult statue and temple respectively.
Several aspects of the divine such as anthropomorphism, moral ambiguity, or epiphanic communication with the human sphere are addressed both in respect to their cinematic and Homeric concepts. I think it is legitimate to ask why the perception of ancient Greek mythology had to be limited to cinematic representations. The majority of the papers are of outstanding quality, but the bibliographical references tend to create the false impression that the study of Greek religion is about to become a monolingual discipline.
Despite these points of criticism, this companion will certainly constitute a valuable instrument for both students and scholars of Greek religion. Curtis ed. Jahrtausend v.
A Companion to Greek Tragedy
Meyer , Die Personifikation der Stadt Antiocheia. Indeed, Dionysos became known as the god of theatre and perhaps there is another connection - the drinking rites which resulted in the worshipper losing full control of their emotions and in effect becoming another person, much as actors hupokritai hope to do when performing.
The music and dance of Dionysiac ritual was most evident in the role of the chorus and the music provided by an aulos player, but rhythmic elements were also preserved in the use of first, trochaic tetrameter and then iambic trimeter in the delivery of the spoken words. Performed in an open-air theatre theatron such as that of Dionysos in Athens and seemingly open to all of the male populace the presence of women is contested , the plot of a tragedy was almost always inspired by episodes from Greek mythology , which we must remember were often a part of Greek religion.
As a consequence of this serious subject matter, which often dealt with moral right and wrongs, no violence was permitted on the stage and the death of a character had to be heard from offstage and not seen. Similarly, at least in the early stages of the genre, the poet could not make comments or political statements through the play, and the more direct treatment of contemporary events had to wait for the arrival of the less austere and conventional genre, Greek comedy.
The early tragedies had only one actor who would perform in costume and wear a mask, allowing him the presumption of impersonating a god. Here we can see perhaps the link to earlier religious ritual where proceedings might have been carried out by a priest. Later, the actor would often speak to the leader of the chorus, a group of up to 15 actors who sang and danced but did not speak.
This innovation is credited to Thespis in c. Phrynichos is credited with the idea of splitting the chorus into different groups to represent men, women, elders, etc.
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Eventually, three actors were permitted on stage - a limitation which allowed for equality between poets in competition. However, a play could have as many non-speaking performers as required, so, no doubt, plays with greater financial backing could put on a more spectacular production with finer costumes and sets.
Finally, Agathon is credited with adding musical interludes unconnected with the story itself. The most famous competition for the performance of tragedy was as part of the spring festival of Dionysos Eleuthereus or the City Dionysia in Athens, but there were many others. Only those deemed worthy of the festival would be given the financial backing necessary to procure a costly chorus and rehearsal time. The plays of the three selected poets were judged on the day by a panel and the prize for the winner of such competitions, besides honour and prestige, was often a bronze tripod cauldron.
The first of the great tragedian poets was Aeschylus c. Innovative, he added a second actor for minor parts and by including more dialogue into his plays, he squeezed more drama from the age-old stories so familiar to his audience. As plays were submitted for competition in groups of four three tragedies and a satyr-play , Aeschylus often carried on a theme between plays, creating sequels. The second great poet of the genre was Sophocles c.
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Tremendously popular, he added a third actor to the proceedings and employed painted scenery, sometimes even changes of scenery within the play. Three actors now permitted much more sophistication in terms of plot. One of his most famous works is Antigone c. It is a classic situation of tragedy - the political right of having the traitor Polynices denied burial rites is contrasted against the moral right of a sister seeking to lay to rest her brother.
The last of the classic tragedy poets was Euripides c. He liked to pose awkward questions and unsettle the audience with his thought-provoking treatment of common themes. This is probably why, although he was popular with the public, he won only a few festival competitions. Of around 90 plays, 19 survive, amongst the most famous being Medeia - where Jason, of the Golden Fleece fame, abandons the title character for the daughter of the King of Corinth with the consequence that Medeia kills her own children in revenge.
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